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Topics - zityx23

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In network computing, we evolved from “client-server” to “web and app” through past half century. They all have central server for date consolidation. A client or peer should connect to a server to get application working.

In blockchain, a peer does not want to talk to a central server. It wants to talk to consensus as a virtual being. There is no garantee or plan on what machine it connects to or never connects to. To achieve this, we require a new computing idea. I called it: server-less computing.

A fast growing smart phone and telecom industry makes server-less computing technically possible. Powerful individual smart phones are the essential building blocks. To allow smart phones to participate, it has to tolerate two things: state-less and permission-less.

Phones do not know when loosing power or entering into elevators, so that it has to be state-less. This means your phone is not responsible for any data availability and continuity. Every stream of data comes and goes randomly and irresponsibly.

It has to be permission-less to participate the application. A phone can choose to join or exit the computing at its free will.

Server-less architecture has immediate benefits:

no communication encryption is needed under permission-less plan.
date availability and scalability is achieved by massive state-less participation.
no servers for hackers to attack
no cost on hosting, AWS is replaced by smart phones network
no capacity for proof of work algorithm to operate
Blockchain crypto currency is safe and efficient running on server-less computing network, due to its decentralization and consensus needs. When each smart phone could freely become a blockchain node or miner, consensus is truly globally, robust and immutable.

There is some technical challenges on running crypto currency on pure smart phone server-less network.

where to get initial data: when you use a server-less software, you also trust its intial recommened data sources.
who to trust when there is conflict in different data source: smart phones could participate social media to publish opinion on what it observed along the time, in the format of hash sequence with time stamp on third party social media. When conflict chain, such as in reorganization attacking, causing confusion, and smart phone alone can not make decision, this social media diary can help to decide who is the original chain mostly conforming to history, since going back time to change logs is impossible after publicly shared. Yes, here is a social media central server existing. However, this social media server is totally independent from the crypto currency application. It is also up to nodes decision of which public social media to trust. Will there be social media manipulation? That is question whether facebook or twitter is willing to change history content for attackers.
computing power, network speed and storage constrain on transaction speed and application data size. We just faithfully bet on information technology will grow to make these resources cheap enough.
TAUcoin takes an all-in strategy to implement server-less computing for proof of transaction protocol. Just like web and app never replaced client-server, now we welcome a third network computing framework: sever-less computing.



“Proof of Transaction” favours more miners than any other consensus

n a blockchain consensus design, the permission-less participation of miners, or verifiers, is a key quality of the decentralization. Like doing anything, there is an entry barrier to become miners. In “proof of work”, one has to buy equipments to compete on hashing power. This normally causes exponential growth on the cost of the mining. We have seen this happenning in real. In “proof of stake”, one has to be owning a meaningful amount of coins to compete. If you are poor in coins, you can not be a verifier or miner.

“Proof of Transactions” provides a whole new permission-less gateway for people to become miners and allow each wallet to mine as full node. As long as you has made transactions in the history and your address holding coins more than average historical block transaction fee, that is normally very low, you are allowed to be miner. The reason for holding minimum address balances is to prevent malicious sybil attack and massive private key release.

This design allows as many as technically possible for people able to become miners and create incentive to work as a full node to facilitate transactions all over the world, when network connection is avaible and owning a smart phone.

I would argue all current blockchain consensuses are heading to less and less miners. This is not a good trend for a decentralization currency revolution. Proof of transactions offers a hope to allow everyone be able to mine disregard your hardware power or coins holding amount. TAUcoin as first implementation of “proof of transaction” has recruited 200,000 users. By design they are all be able to mine at full node capacity.



Blockchain security and social media

The immutable promise of block chain seems to be independent from any human interfere. However, this idea remains implausible in reality, when people invest in mining equipments to manipulate the public ledger and perform 51% attack on bitcoin cash and ETC.

Most of “proof of work” consensus such as bitcoin claims that the longest chain is truth no matter how human engages. When “work” become an investable result, people can interfere under the hood of “truth”.

When social media comes around, there is a mini history established by your friends and groups to record what is happening each day and verified by many related people. Thesedays we gives social media more creditability on history and current than news paper.

This provides block chain a possiblility to use social media to lock in milestones or finality to prevent history reorganization by attackers. This is particularly useful for proof of stake and proof of transaction consensus. They all suffer “weak subjectivity” problem, when people fake history to launch history re-organization. These consensus are using on chain information rather than off-chain physical resource to determine the truth of next block generator. Social media is effective to lock down history and prevent people change it. We know when a news happened and distributed on facebook, no body can revert it, and all efforts trying to revert will actually be recorded and remembered by friends.

Taucoin foundation will use social media channels such as facebook, twitter and mWallet to constantly publish hash result of blocks. So that when history re-organzation happens, community is able to find out which chain has proven history. During the same time and spirit, community can publish and verify “transparent forging” in social media to prevent double spending and find secrete chain.

Social media, an decentralzied news channel, will become a great infrastructure for blockchain security.



In data management world, there are two way to make multiple servers to work together: sharding and replication.

Sharding is to distributer different types of data to different servers, such as in a book store, you put fiction, drama, sci-fi into different sections.

Replication is to put all data into different server, each computers contains same data and application. It is like you open up more book stores, each book stores has same collections of books.

Comparing to other enterprise application such as Amazon or Facebook, blockchain has much less data and require higher availability and security. Therefore, replication is preferred than sharding in settlement layer computing architecture. Multiple nodes to mine on same blockchain is a good example of replication. This design philosophy shall be used in most of blockchain applications such as wallet, payment network and exchange.

Even when sharding is required, it has to be sharding under replication layers for blockchain.



Private key backup strengthens family value in blockchain

“your private key, your coin”, said by Andreas Antonopoulos, means if your private key is released, your coins are gone. As a biological human, we all have up and down in health and accessibility to basic things. Who are you going to trust when you are not be able to physically access private key? Giving to a third party such as banks is back to the old centralization world under authority.

Here comes the help of family. The only people you naturally trust is the family members. The decentralized movement is interestingly reflecting the importance of blood line and giving trust back to family.

Once family members are helping each other on private keys. The relationship is getting to deeper level, and ones rely on each other for protecting the wealth and financial freedom against inflation and control.

TAU mWallet (mobile mining wallet) design is addressing this issue. We adopt the security model as phone security stright to private key without password. Therefore, once your private key is backup by your family members, you can recover the asset instantly without worry about centralized password. You phone security is protected mostly by biological features of your self thesedays.

For those without family members like elderly persons, I believe some charity or religion group shall be able to support this services. Most of time, we can view them as a bigger family.



Discuss subtle header difference between Proof of Transaction vs BTC Proof of Work

BTC requires miner to constantly adjust “nonce” field in the header to compete the block hash to include enough zeros. The processing sequence is packaging transaction first then mining. The hashing result depends on the entire block content. BTC header can not seperate from block content in mining.

POT does not require transaction content to participate mining. The processing sequence is signature generation once only in header then packaging transactions. The hashing result only relates to timestamp and public keys content.

The result is POT need much less computing resource and POW requires “constant adjust and hashing” which is described as work in a high computing power environment. This subtle difference makes POW not possible to operate in a mobile phone and wild global mobile network.



TAU Work in a growing 150 thousands global citizens community

TAU community has 150 thousands users now globally from all major countries and keeps on growing. As citizens of TAU community, we shall start helping doing digital things for each other such as logo design, writing, translation or any kind of advice in life and business.

In taucointalk.org, we created this new channel “TAU work” to serve as a exchange place, people can post offer and request. I post an offer to invite community member to add their project link into taucoin.io home page for a week in exchange of 100 tau.

I think the first application for TAUcoin is not buying coffee or pizza but exchanging little digital services via taucoin as a media of exchange inside community. Saint Lucia as a country with 200k population uses independant currency XCD to exchange service on the island. We shall learn from them but digitally on the cyber world. We shall help each other using TAU.



Upgrade “server to server” blockchain to “client to client, server-less” — making wallets true decentralized

In my knowledge, all coin mining requires public IP address for nodes to communicate with each others on IP network, that is Internet. It is required for BTC, ETC, EOS and all as I know. On today’s Internet, only server has public IP, and blockchain network consensus is really built on “server to server”. You wallet is a client connecting to one of those servers, therefore wallet is not decentralized neither have the full picture of the pubic ledger to running by itself.

Clearly, good wallet shall run on mobile phones. However, mobile phone does not have “real IP address” due to IPv4 network is not able to provide that many IP addresses. IPv6 needs many years to come, so that the mobile industry using NAT, network address translation, to make many phones sharing one public IP and giving cell phone internal IP address behind firewall. Without IP address, mobile phone can only be client and not able to be a full mining node on public internet. Different cell phones behind firewall need centralized server to communicate to each other such as you see in whatsup and wechat.

TAUcoin is solving this industry bottleneck, to build true “client to client, server-less” networking allow blockchain to be maintained on mobile phone systems without any super node software. Every wallet is an full node running on mobile phone behind NAT firewall using internal IP address. So that we makes “server”, “client” and “wallet” all the same to achieve true decentalizaton.

How are we going to do that? Please stay tuned on TAU mainnet.



Ethereum Classic double spending incident: what will prevent double spending or history rewritten attack?

Jan 5th, 2019, Coinbase detects that Ethereum Classic(ETC) is under 51% attack with many double spending and history rewritten. ETC is among top 10 POW hashrate coins. When in bear market the network hash rate is lower than history average, the 51% attack is inevitably surfacing when low cost hardware is available for robbing purpose. When bull market everything is upward in POW ecosystem, the marginal cost to get more hash rate is increasing, 51% attack is more expensive to achieve. Will bitcoin experience this? We do not know yet, Murphy’s law, “Any thing that can go wrong will go wrong”.

In Proof of Transaction or Proof of Stake, on chain consensus system, the “total consensus strength” is stable and will not fall fast due to coins prices going down. Although it faces “weak subjectivity”, which means merely comparing chain difficulty is hard to decide which version of the chains is real. Most POT and POS use “generation signature” to reach consensus not rely on physical world resources such as hashrate or other alternative hardware. POT and POS will resolve “real chain” problem potentially via social media analysis and transparency forging. We can view Coinbase reporting ETC double spending is a feed from social media. With all the information on chain history and probability model on generator address sequence transparent, the community can assess the risk of each new chain. In POW, there is no prediction on which address is likely to be next miner, the power can shift in dark from address to address. On chain consensus POT and POW is transparent.



2019 Approaching a perfect crypto currency — TAUCOIN experiment

Top mission is to create a perfect crypto currency. One can use it without censorship, inflation or high cost. The task seems too difficult to achieve, but it could be approached through innovative experiments.

To be efficient, the experiment design shall starts with only utility. That is a sound currency, not dapp operating system, anonymous transmitter or exchange. The features of a sound currency shall support decentralized payment, permission-less verification, low cost to achieve consensus and fast speed.

Among all, decentralization need to be satisfied first. Proof-of-work experiments such as bitcoin has shown clear centralization in mining. BTC existing miners are less than state banks.

We propose a novel consensus system, proof-of-transaction. Verifiers (miners) are competing on accumulating transactions to generate new blocks and get transaction fees. The longer the blockchain history, the more consensus weight is accumulated in the system. POS total consensus weight is fixed in day one when all the coins minted. POT consensus is growing along the time, because of transactions happening forever in decentralized fashion.

POT possess the gene to address “decentralization” in two ways: full mobile device support and permission-less transparent mining. POT requires minimum computing resource. TAU is experimenting daily 2 Mb data consumption for a full miner on a low cost android phone under 1G memory. Using “generation hash” as network random number in TAU to select next miner, we make the participation permission-less and transparent. This has a side benefits to increase detecting ability of 51% attack, due to the predictable consensus on the mining sequence, called transparent forging, invented by NXT.

POT addressed “decentralization” and “low cost consensus” at cost of low transaction speed on the main-net. Every minute in order to make millions of mobile miners to receive transaction data at global scale, network has to reduce the block size to fit global mobile bandwidth. TAU is experimenting 1.7Kb per minute block size at current stage. To off-set this clear trade-off, we developed TAU PAY funcation to help daily users to achieve VISA card speed by centralizing the micropayments. We also encourage our community members to build various fast payment solutions based on the robust main-net settlement layer.

Above summary is TAU technical vision to acheive a sound crypto currency. Currently the community has about 130,000 wallet users and 450 millions coins issued with total 3 million transactions. This is our base for the experiment of the up comming main-net on Feb 2019. We are targeting 1 Million miners by end of 2019.



I propose to use “total consensus strength” to measure the stableness of security development of a blockchain protocol. Here is the definition:

(total Strength of a consensus) = (number of miners) X (average mining power)

This shows how stable development of three block chain consensus.

Proof-of-work is a permission-less consenus that miners compete on computing power. The stronger one miner’s computing power, the higher probability it will generate next block. Financial ability to maintain cost on the computing power leads to centralization. Strength of POW is affacted by declining miner numbers and the increasing cost of computing power. When the mining community is limited, drop-out of a few miners will cause fall of the strength such as hash rate decrease in the bitcoin bear market. The root cause is the physical world cost to maintain power, so that the total strength is fluctuating along the cycle. The unstableness is vulnerable for attack.

Proof-of-stake is a decentralized permission-less consensus that miners compete on holdings of coins. It is low cost in maintain computing power. Most of POS generates all coins on the first day, so the maximum total strength is fixed. Along with lost of coins and silence of holders, the strength is declining and eventually concentrating to few miners.

Proof-of-transaction is a decentralized permission-less consensus that miners compete on transactions history. It does not support mining pool from design and low cost to maintain. The strength of consensus is increasing along the transaction numbers accumulated on the blockchain. The longer the chain, the higher strength of consensus it will become. The total strength is ever increasing while transactions happenning. TAUcoin is an implementation of POT running on regular mobile device.



Based on cryptographic knowledge accumulation from bitcoin, ethereum and NXT, we designed the TAU block and transaction structure. TAU wants to achieve:

fast communication in mobile environment to reduce the fork probability caused by global network latency.
small full ledger size to allow mobile device to download entire blockchain faster for decentralizing purpose.
generation hash on consecutive public keys to form transparent mining sequence to increase detection on secret chain.
block contains 50 transactions on average 5 minutes time interval.

version: 8 bits; keeping version is for upgrade to define the transition grace peroid.
timestamp: 32 bits
block signature: 520 bits; to ensure the integrity of the block.
previousHeaderHash: 160 bits; use SHA256, RIPEMD 160; hash item 1–4
option: 8bits; this is left for future use.
transactions stack
“Hit” number is the first 8 bytes of hash(previous block generator public key 64 bytes+ current generator public key 64 bytes ); with this network random number, TAU network can decide who is the current winning minner and predict the future mining sequence.

The block common area is total 728 bits, 91 bytes.

Transaction: only support transaction from one address to another address.

version: 8 bits; keeping version is for upgrade to define the transition grace peroid.
option: 8 bits; for future use.
timestamp: 32 bits; transaction will expire in 12 hours and not be added to block 12 hours ahead of the header timestamp. 24 hours, 288 blocks, are needed to confirm the expiry for funds sender. User can resend transaction on 2nd day once expired. We choose timestamp over nonce(ETH) to avoid complexity of transaction sequences.
expiry: 16 bites, blocks to expire.
toAddess: 160 bits, this is SHA256-ripemd 160 on a public key.
amount: 40 bits, maximum presentation is 10,000,000,000.00#
fee: 16 bits
transaction signature: 520 bits
Every transaction is total 800bits, 100bytes.

Checkpoint and malleable range discussion

Tau defines checkpoint is the block height and block signature hardcoded in software such as in genesis block or periodically added into Taucoin Implementation(TIP). Once a node is confused of which chain to follow, it always goes back to software last checkpoint and searching highest difficult chain available in the network. Who decides checkpoint content? Initially TAU foundation will maintain checkpoint signature information on our website, in the future, we expect community to have a rating service to provide checkpoint validation in social network fashion.

In order to avoid “secrete chain attack” which are double spending and long range reorganization attack, each miner defines n as “mutable range” from current block to previous n blocks; blocks before the mutable range is imutable range. Within mutable range, miner can switch blocks chain according to received difficulty value. Miner can not make changes into “imutable range” unless external intervene such as instruction from human to go back to last checkpoint and researching the true highest difficulty chain. This area needs to be furthur researched.

When a block with higher difficulty forks out after checkpoint and in immutable range, software shall alert miners such attack happening, then transparent mining data shall be in place to give analysis whether this was a secret chain to kick out.



Every wallet is a full miner — A novel crypto experiment

While crypto currency community pursuing a decentralized network, greediness is constantly attracting projects to build big mining pool or delegated nodes. These will certainly help features such as speed and smart contract, but at cost of decentralization.

To address the mission of decentralization and in the spirit of science exploration, we propose a plan to permissionless allow every mobile wallet to be a full miner. The benefit of equalizing wallet to miner is to enable millions of phones to collectively secure transactions and earn fees that every developing country person with a phone can afford.

However, difficulties come from computing power and bandwidth limits of mobile device and internet latency that potentially causing data inconsistency.

The framework of solution and trade-off is: using “proof of transaction” protocol as base settlement layer to remove computing burden, reducing blocksize to 1KB per minute to allow global millions of nodes synchronized on time, and relying on community to create second layer payment applications to bring back the transaction speed.

Upon success of the plan, individual with a phone willing to consume 1.2Mbyte data per day can be a blockchain miner making fees. The more transactions history and wallets (miners), the blockchain will become more secure. The stronger coin holders community, the more second layer payment projects will appear, so that to achieve higher speed of currency flow.



Root of volatility is from multiple utilities coexisting on single blockchain

We see significant volatility this month, at writing, BTC is $3,716. Why does crypto asset suffer from volatility all the time? Assuming it is not fault of consumers, it has to be error in design.

Protocol designer tends to put multiple benefits into one powerful chain such as peer-to-peer payment, coin-base reward, ERC20 contract or ring signatures, and the list can go long. Each one of these functions is good at its own value and essential in many applications. However, putting them all together in single coin seems to be crowded.

Let’s analyse two functions coexist on one chain such as BTC. Miners will receive both transaction fee and coin-base reward, that is when successfully producing a block, a garanteed 25 bitcoins are rewarded. Each function has its own supply and demand ecosystem. For example, in order to receive coin-base block reward, you need to compete by paying for physical resources; on the other side, in order to support peer to peer payment and receive transaction fee from users, you need to mine the block as well. But the two valuation system is different to cause conflict or discrimination. Connecting them together was thought as a smart design, but now coin-base reward is significantly more weighted than transaction fee, which brings the cost of transaction is too high to maintain and keep popular. In BCH case, it does not even care whether there are transactions in the big block at all. Simple math shows that each block cost $100K to produce, one block can support 2000 transactions, that is $50 per wiring as total cost from the bitcoin community. Now doing mining is to play the coin-base reward and ignore the transaction fee market. BTC is designed to provide peer-to-peer trust-less payment, not competing reward. It is jammed by reward hunter, such as bitmain, than payment provider. This is not anyone’s fault but the result of design TWO utilities in one blockchain, so the volatility is borned to reflect the competion of resources from two markets.

The same argument exists in ETH as well. ERC 20-ICO market is much stronger than the coin-base reward and p2p payment. This makes ETH price too high to support its origin goal as a global computer.

My proposition is that pure blockchain design should only have single primary utility, either p2p payment, ICO, anonymous or speed. If you put two utilities into one protocol, a competition between two utility markets born which will eventually cause endless volatility. BTC need 20 more years to settle this internal battle according to the protocol, but it does win short term public attention by doing mining reward. Without mining reward, BTC might require longer time to gain recognition. Based on the experimental result from BTC and ETH, Taucoin is designed to reward miners transaction fee only and support single function, that is permission-less decentralized peer to peer payment.



I like this brain experiment. What is the most important feature of blockchain? Is that solved? If not, why not focus on solving it?

“Security” is the most important principle for a blockchain or a crypto currency. ABC and SV forking off from different ideas on block size and smart contract shows that they are still at mercy of 51% power attack from btc mining pools. Both ABC and SV has committed “censorship”and “rebuild new chain” in past 24 hours by centralizing power. Both lost this war in front of community that believes in a decentralized permision-less payment network.

It seems BTC mining pool is super secure. However, what if one G20 country decides to take the same action that BTC did to BCH?

Without security, “speed, scale and smart” is useless. I propose blockchain community should move attention to fundamentals rather than quick profit on fancy functions to satisfy variety of applications. This solidifies TAU decision to remove mining pool, reduce block size to 10kb and reposition us to a decentralized secure coin.



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