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1
ICO ANN / [ANN] Elrond | 1000x Throughput | 6000+ Merchants Accepted
« on: April 15, 2019, 03:21:35 PM »



Elrond is a complete rethinking of public blockchain architecture, solving scalability through adaptive state sharding, efficiency through secure proof of stake, and will enable EVM compliance by design. Elrond attempts to bring a 1000x improvement compared to the current status quo, aiming for 10,000 TPS, low latency, and minimal fees.
 
Abstract: The advent of secure public blockchains through Bitcoin and later Ethereum, has brought forth a notable degree of interest and capital influx, providing the premise for a global wave of permissionless innovation. Despite lofty promises, creating a decentralized, secure and scalable public blockchain has proved to be a strenuous task. This paper proposes Elrond, a novel architecture which goes beyond state of the art by introducing a genuine state sharding scheme for practical scalability, eliminating energy and computational waste while ensuring distributed fairness through a Secure Proof of Stake (SPoS) consensus. Having a strong focus on security, Elrond’s network is built to ensure resistance to known security problems like Sybil attack, Rogue-key attack, Nothing at Stake attack and others. In an ecosystem that strives for interconnectivity, our solution for smart contracts offers an EVM compliant engine to ensure interoperability by design. Preliminary simulations reflect that Elrond exceeds Visa’s average throughput and achieves an improvement of three orders of magnitude or 1000x compared to the existing viable approaches, while drastically reducing the costs of bootstrapping and storage to ensure long-term sustainability. - https://elrond.com/files/Elrond_Whitepaper_EN.pdf

Defining the challenges:

Several challenges must be addressed properly in the process of creating an innovative public blockchain solution designed to scale:

• Full decentralization - Eliminating the need for any trusted third party, hence removing any single point of failure;
• Robust security - Allowing secure transactions and preventing any attacks based on known attack vectors;
• High scalability - Enabling the network to achieve a performance at least equal to the centralized counterpart, as measured in TPS;
• Efficiency - Performing all network services with minimal energy and computational requirements;
• Bootstrapping and storage enhancement - Ensuring a competitive cost for data storage and bootstrapping synchronization;
• Cross-chain interoperability - Enforced by design, permitting unlimited communication between external services.

Starting from the above challenges, we’ve created Elrond as a complete rethinking of public blockchain infrastructure, specifically designed to be secure, efficient, scalable and interoperable. Elrond’s main contribution rests on two cornerstone building blocks:

1) A genuine State Sharding approach: effectively partitioning the chain state into multiple shards, handled in parallel by different participating validators;
2) Secure Proof of Stake consensus mechanism: an improved variation of Proof of Stake (PoS) that ensures long term security and distributed fairness, while eliminating the need for energy intensive PoW algorithms.

Adaptive State Sharding

Elrond proposes a dynamically adaptive sharding mechanism that enables shard computation and reorganizing based on necessity and the number of active network nodes. The reassignment of nodes in the shards at the beginning of each epoch is progressive and nondeterministic, inducing no temporary liveness penalties. Adaptive state sharding comes with additional challenges compared to the static model. One of the key-points resides in how shard-splitting and shard merging is done to prevent overall latency penalties. Latency, in this case, is the communication overhead required by nodes, in order to retrieve the new state, once their shard address space assignment has been modified.
Users are external actors and can be identified by a unique account address; nodes are computers/devices in the Elrond network that run our protocol. Notions like users, nodes, addresses will be further described in chapter II.1 - Entities



Elrond solves this challenge by:
  • Dividing the wallet (user)account address space in shards, using a binary tree which can be built with the sole requirement of knowing the exact number of shards in a certain epoch. Using this method, the accumulated latency is reduced and the network liveness is improved in two ways. First, thanks to the designed model, the dividing of the account address space is predetermined by hierarchy. Hence, there is no split overhead, meaning that one shard breaks into two shards, each of them keeping only one half of the previous address space in addition to the associated state. Second, the latency is reduced through the state redundancy mechanism, as the merge is prepared by retaining the state in the sibling nodes.
  • Introducing a technique of balancing the nodes in each shard, to achieve overall architecture equilibrium. This technique ensures a balanced workload and reward for each node in the network.
  • Designing a built-in mechanism for automatic transaction routing in the corresponding shards, considerably reduces latency as a result. The routing algorithm is described in chapter IV.4 - Elrond sharding approach
  • In order to achieve considerable improvements with respect to bootstrapping and storage, Elrond makes use of a shard pruning mechanism. This ensures sustainability of our architecture even with a throughput of tens of thousands of transactions per second (TPS).

Secure Proof of Stake (SPoS)

We introduce a Secure Proof of Stake consensus mechanism, that expands on Algorand’s idea of a random selection mechanism, differentiating itself through the following aspects:


  • Elrond introduces an improvement which reduces the latency allowing each node in the shard to determine the members of the consensus group (block proposer and validators) at the beginning of a round. This is possible because the last block’s aggregated signature is used as the randomization factor r. The block proposer is the validator in the consensus group who’s hash of the public key and randomization factor is the smallest. In contrast to Algorand’s approach, where the random committee selection can take up to 12 seconds, in Elrond the time necessary for random selection of the consensus group is considerably reduced (estimated under 100 ms). Indeed, there is no communication requirement for this random selection process, which enables Elrond to have a newly and randomly selected group that succeeds in committing a new block to the ledger in each round. The tradeoff for this enhancement relies on the premise that an adversary cannot adapt faster than the round’s time frame. A further improvement on the security of the randomness source, would be the use of verifiable delay functions (VDFs) in order to prevent any tampering possibilities of the randomness source until it is too late.
  • In addition to the stake factor generally used in PoS architectures as a sole decision input, Elrond refines its consensus mechanism by adding an additional weight factor called rating, The node’s probability to be selected in the consensus group takes into consideration both stake and rating. The rating of a block proposer is recalculated at the end of each round epoch, except in cases where slashing should occur, when the actual rating decrease is done instantly, adding another layer of security by promoting meritocracy.
  • Elrond uses Bellare and Neven multisignature scheme, which eliminates one communication round in the signing algorithm, because no proof of possession is needed, but maintains the same security level.


FAQ - https://elrond.com/faq


2
||| WEBSITE ||| EXPLORER ||| MINING ||| AIRDROP ||| COMPANY |||











Name
X-CASH
Ticker
XCASH
Max supply
100,000,000,000 (100 Billion) XCASH
Circulating Supply
~28 Billion
PoW Algorithm
Cryptonight Heavy X
Difficulty Algorithm
LWMA 120 Blocks
Block Time
2min.
Transaction Privacy
Private/Public






MINING

 
XCASH is a minable cryptocurrency. We have improved the PoW algorithm to CryptoNight HeavyXx (or Cryptonight v8 double) to better resist against ASICs and FGPA, and to be Nicehash resistant.






DISTRIBUTION OF X-CASH





SEGREGATED FUND TRACKER

One of our goal is to be transparent in our engagements to the community. To this end, we have developed a segregated funds tracker that will allow anyone to check the balance of the locked wallets.
We are using cryptographic reserve proofs which allow confirming that a specific address holds a certain amount without revealing its public key.







TEAM
 





ROADMAP
We are developping many features to improve our services and provide a state-of-the-art innovation.
Our roadmap gives you a deeper look on what we are working on and the next steps of our ecosystem.





GUI WALLET

Always thinking about improving users experience, we have developed our own desktop wallet to help users navigate through their account, send/receive payments and manage settings.
We are currently working on bringing the desktop wallet to OSX and Linux systems, and on mobile later this year.

 





||| WEBSITE ||| EXPLORER ||| MINING ||| AIRDROP ||| COMPANY |||



3


What is GPTCash
GPTCash is a community cryptocurrency project and envisioned itself as one of the major payment currency in the GPT Industry. Our GPT platform will enable employers, advertisers and different companies to outsource job and manpower for more efficient and cost-effective way to complete their needs. GPT Industry is a billion dollar industry and many work at home people are turning to GPT Platform to earn extra money online.

Unlike Other Cryptocurrency Project we are not promising fancy blockchain technology but a real use case by creating a real ecosystem and market behind GPTCash as a online currency for payment of goods and services.

Airdroptalkforum Introduction
Airdroptalkforum is our native cryptocurrency community forum. GPTCash Airdrop will fuel the growth of airdroptalkforum as a community forum. Forum Features includes Forum Chatbox, In-House Forum Currency, Lotto, Bank System,contest to name a few. Join Airdroptalkforum a be a pioneer members of our new community forum startup.

Coin Specification
Algorithm - Scrypt
Type Proof of Stake
Coin name - GPTCash
Coin Ticker - GPTC
POS Rewards - 10% Annually
Min Stake age - 8 hours
Max Stake age - Unlimited
Coinbase Maturity - 20 Blocks
RPC port - 43036
P2P port - 43035
Coin supply - 100,200,000 coins
Premine - 40,200,000 coins

Premine Allocation
Airdrop: 30,000,000
Mini Sale: 3,000,000
Development Fund: 3,000,000
Founders Rewards: 1,500,000 (500k will be unlock after the airdrop)
The remaining 1M will slowly release 3 months after the airdrop on a monthly basis (10%) for 10 months
Bounty & Marketing: 1,500,000
Forum Giveaways: 200,000
Network: 1,000,000 (All Stake Rewards will be use for Giveaways)
Use only for Network Security and Stability. After AD10 Community will decide what to do with the coin.

30 Rounds of Community Airdrop Project
Total Airdrop Allotment
30,000,000 GPTCash Coin
Total Airdrop Rounds
30 Weeks + 12 Months Exclusive Airdrop

How to Participate?
1. To participate you must register in the Airdroptalkforum
2. To received the airdrop, download the GPTCash wallet here
3. After having your wallet address, fill up the form to participate in weekly airdrop here
4. AirdropTalkForum requires 10 post to qualify for the airdrop
5. 80% Holding Requirements to qualify for the airdrop.
6. Distribution 1 User = 1 Stake, Equal Distribution.

Anti-Cheating, Abuse and Multiple Accounts
1. Registration Using VPN,TOR,Proxy is allowed but user that register using those methods will NOT QUALIFY for the airdrop.
2. Use your normal house internet connection or mobile data to register for the weekly airdrop.
3. Sharing IP within your household is OK!! but only 1 user can qualify for the airdrop. (1 Family = 1 Airdrop Qualification Only)
4. We have BOT and Manual Checking in place to prevent cheating and abuse from the airdrop.

Useful Links
GPTCash Website https://gptcash.online/
Airdroptalkforum https://airdroptalkforum.com/index.php?r=69
GPTCash Twitter https://twitter.com/gptcashcoin
GPTCash Wallet https://github.com/GPTCash/GPTCash/releases
Not allowed other forum name Ann https://Not allowed other forum name.org/index.php?topic=5050025

4
Philippines / TAUcoin Community Philippines
« on: October 31, 2018, 11:01:04 AM »


Maligayang pagdating sa mga Pinoy TAUcoin members!

Mga kababayan wag po natin kalimutan sumali sa ating local community group.

Telegram Group
https://t.me/TAUcoin_PH

Discord Group
https://discord.gg/KDVnT4h


To help promote our community you can use this signature.
Just add your Taucoin referral link to YOUR REFERRAL LINK in the below code  ;)

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[td][color=#F19322][color=#C6C6C6][url=https://t.me/TAUcoin_PH][font=Arial][size=24pt][b][color=#ffa339]TAUcoin [color=#050504]Community [color=#00369b]P[/color][color=#005dc2]h[/color][color=#0074d9]i[/color][color=#44b8ff]l[/color][color=#fffa1e]i[/color][color=#ffa339]p[/color][color=#ff851b]p[/color][color=#ff5f54]i[/color][color=#ff4136]n[/color][color=#e82a1f]e[/color][color=#c10300]s[/color]
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TAUcoin Community Philippines




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